Treaties in Historical Context

Document 2: Two Row Wampum (c. 1613 – present)

Source: “The Two Row Wampum” by Nativemedia is licensed under CC BY-SA


The Guswenta or Two Row Wampum Belt symbolizes the Covenant Chain relationship between the Dutch, then English and the Haudenosaunee (see section 5.7). This metaphorical relationship continues to anchor the Haudenosaunee/English relationship today and is embodied in what is known as the two row wampum belt.